A call to Deobandi-Barelwi unity? Fatwas from two leading Deobandi institutes

Translated by the Deoband.org Team

Fatwa from Dar al-‘Ulum Deoband

Question:

What say the scholars of the faith and muftis of the firm Shari’ah about the following matter. For almost the past two years this difference is increasing day by day and the people associated with the elders of Deoband are being divided into two factions. Therefore, guide us by writing a detailed answer that is supported with proofs and with references to books to the following issues:

Is the Deobandi and Barelwi difference of a peripheral nature (furu’i) or of a fundamental (usuli) nature and in beliefs? One group says that the controversy is of a peripheral nature and that the hard stance taken by our scholars and elders of Deoband was temporary and momentary since both parties are from the Ahl al-Sunnah wa ‘l-Jama’ah, adhere to the Hanafi madhhab and to the beliefs elucidated by the Asha’ris and Maturidis, and in tariqah follow the right path.

They add that since anti-Islamic elements are rising, the Deobandis and Barelwis should unite and counter them. In light of past experiences, can such an alliance actually be successful? Is it permissible for Deobandis to move from their basic stance and positions in fiqh, and participate in [ceremonies of] ‘urs, mawlids, fatihah etc?

The other group says that the elders of Deoband’s difference with the Barelwis are not only of a peripheral nature but also of a fundamental nature (usuli) and in beliefs. For example differences relating to nur wa bashar, ‘ilm al-ghayb kulli, mukhtar al-kull, hadhir wa nadhir,[1] prostrating in front of graves etc. are from the more important and main ones.

Their books also contain fatwas of kufr against the elders of Deoband. Therefore, before uniting with them, they should be asked to remove such fatwas of kufr from their books, disassociate themselves from them and rectify their beliefs.

The first group provides proofs for the permissibility of mawlid, ‘urs, etc. using some saying of the elders of Deoband such as Hakim al-Ummah Mawlana Ashraf ‘Ali Thanawi’s (may Allah mercy him) Haft Mas’alah and some statements from Shaykh al-Hadith Mawlana Muhammad Zakariyya (may Allah mercy them both).

The question is whether it is permissible to attend the Barelwis’ meetings of mawlid, ‘urs etc. if an expedience (maslahah) can be seen? Is it permissible to tolerate their actions due to an expedience and call to unite with them? Is this difference of a fundamental nature, one relating to beliefs or one of a peripheral nature? Are the Barelwis also from the Ahl al-Sunnah wa ‘l-Jama’ah?

Are the bid’ah of the Barlewis permissible and lawful in themselves according to Deobandi scholars? What is the reality of the pictures of the na’layn sharifayn (shoes of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace)? Is it permissible to take blessings from them, to kiss them and place them over one’s head etc? These issues are spreading rapidly in Pakistan. It is the case until now that these people give importance to the fatwas issued by the ‘ulama of Deoband and it is hoped that they will refrain from doing anything that is contrary to the Shari’ah. Please elaborate, may you be rewarded.

With salam

Questioner: [Mawlana] Isma’il Badat[2]
Madinah al-Munawwarah
18/10/1417

Answer:

With praise to Allah, and peace and blessing to the Prophet. The view of the second group is correct that the dispute between the Deobandis and Barlewis is not of a peripheral nature but of a fundamental nature and related to beliefs. The view of the first group is incorrect that the two groups only have differences that are of a peripheral nature, that both are from the Ahl al-Sunnah wa ‘l-Jama’ah, adhere to the Hanafi madhhab and the beliefs of the ‘Asha’ris and Maturidis and follow the right path in Tasawwuf because the Barelwis (Radakhanis) have made additions to the beliefs of the Ahl al-Sunnah and incorporated issues that are of a peripheral nature (furu’i) into being a part of the religion that really have no base in Hanafi fiqh. For example, they have added four fundamental issues into beliefs: The issues of nur wa bashr,[3] complete ‘ilm al-ghayb,[4] hadhir and nadhir[5] and mukhtar al-kull.[6] And in the issues (masa’il) that are of a peripheral nature (furu’i): calling those apart from Allah, prostrating in front of graves, circumambulating (tawaf) graves, making vows to those apart from Allah, presenting offerings to graves, mawlid, ta’ziyyah and many other things that they have created and which are evidently bid’ah. In Tasawwuf they have also mixed many un-Islamic elements like qawwali, ecstasy (wajd) and spiritual music (sima’) etc.

In addition, the statement of the first group that the hard stance of the Deobandi ‘ulama was temporary and momentary is also untrue; rather it is correct that Deobandiyyat is the name of holding tight to the Sunnah and rejecting bid’ah. The elders of Deoband have always practiced on the verse: “Now, proclaim what you are commanded to.” (15:94) They never showed softness in matters of religion. However, they have always avoided confrontation and encounters, and condemning others with kufr, and have always tried to improve the situation with gentleness and wisdom. Their followers should also adopt this method today.

The treatise Faysalah Haft Mas’alah was written before the Deobandi maslak took shape; to derive proof from it is incorrect. As far as such statements of Shaykh Mawlana Muhammad Zakariyya Saharanpuri (may Allah have mercy on him) are concerned, we are unaware of them. It is also unlawful to attend the Barelwi gatherings of mawlid, ‘urs etc. due to any expediency and their impermissibility is mentioned in the verse: “They wish that you become flexible (in your faith), so that they should become flexible (in their hostile attitude),” (68:9) and this is indicated in the verse: “For you is your faith, and for me is mine.” (109:6)

Hakim al-Ummah Mawlana Thanawi (may Allah mercy him) wrote in Imdad al-Fatwa (5:302): “The evils of customary practices and bid’ah are not worthy of being overlooked.” The summary of the question and answer mentioned in 4:380 is that those who attend ‘urs and other bid’ah, and those who unnecessarily honour them and revere them conform to the hadith: “Whoever honours a person of bid’ah has helped in destroying Islam.”[7]

As far as the matter of some bid’ah being lawful is concerned, it means that these matters are lawful per se such as remembering the holy birth of the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) but fall into the category of bid’ah and become unlawful because of the strict adherence to certain conditions and stipulations.

As for the picture of the na’layn sharifayn, then there is no basis for this. Taking blessing from them, kissing them and putting them over one’s head has no foundation. Mawlana Thanawi has retracted from his treatise Nayl al-Shifa bi Na’l al-Mustafa in his Imdad al-Fatawa 4:378.

And Allah knows best; His knowledge is most perfect and solid.

Written by [Mufti] Sa’id Ahmad Palanpuri
Servant of Dar al-‘Ulum Deoband
23/11/1417

This answer is correct:
[Mufti] Nizam al-Din, Mufti of Dar al-‘Ulum Deoband
25/11/1417

[Mufti] Muhammad Zafir al-Din, Mufti of Dar al-‘Ulum Deoband
25/11/1417

[A question of a similar strain as the above was also sent to the muftis of Mazahir al-‘Ulum Saharanpur. For brevity’s sake, the question has been omitted. The answer was as follows:]

Fatwa from Mazahir al-‘Ulum Saharanpur

Answer:

The ‘ulama of Deoband who were mentioned in the above question,[8] their students and khalifahs were all strong followers of the Sunnah and strongly opposed everything that falls into the circumference of bid ‘ah according to the principles of Shari ‘ah because the Noble Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) has said that every bid ‘ah is a deviation and it is because of this that they were meticulous in safeguarding the Ummah from this divergence.

Regarding this, their short and lengthy books are well known and famous; their refutations and fatwas are mentioned in Al-Barahin al-Qati’ah, Al-Muhannad ‘ala ‘l-Mufannad, Al-Shihab al-Thaqib, Imdad al-Fatawa and Islah al-Rusum. They have with much thinking and composure, while keeping their scholarly responsibilities in view, very openly and sternly refuted every bid’ah (that which is associated with beliefs and actions), and not just that of the Barelwis but rather in whichever region they came to know of them. This position of theirs was not temporary.

Bid’ah can never be a Sunnah, therefore its refutation also cannot be temporary. There is no permission in the Shari’ah to adopt a soft stance in refuting it. Millions of people repented from bid’ah and attached themselves to the Sunnah on account of the refutation of bid’ah that the elders of Deoband carried out and that firmness with which they opposed the people of bid’ah.

If anyone says today that there should be no strictness in refuting bid ‘ah or that, on account of some sort of expediency (maslahah), they should be adopted due to some allegorical interpretation (ta’wil), then such a person is not Deobandi even if he claims to have an attachment to the elders of Deoband. Shaykh al-Hadith Mawlana Muhammad Zakariyya Kandhalawi (may Allah sanctify his grave) was a very staunch Deobandi; he did not like even the slightest diversion from the maslak of his elders. His entire life and works bear witness to this. Anybody who attributes to him a soft stance in bid’ah is not true to his word.

The word “Ahl al-Sunnah wa ‘l-Jama’ah” is applied to the Ash’aris and the Maturidis. Ahmad Rada Khan Barelwi and his group are in no way connected to these groups. The beliefs that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) had the knowledge of the complete unseen (‘ilm al-ghayb kulli) as held by Ahmad Rada Khan and that the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) was entrusted with all powers of disposition are not held by the Ash’aris and Maturidis, has not been mentioned by anyone in the books of ‘aqa’id, and is not mentioned in any way in their books. Both these issues are clearly against the Qur’an and hadiths; these have been created by the Barelwis. If anyone regards the Barelwi sect to be from among the Ahl al-Sunnah wa ‘l-Jama’ah, then this is his clear error.

We the undersigned want to make clear to all Muslims that even now we are strict in following the Deobandi maslak which came to us from our elders of the first generation;[9] we do not allow any kind of softness in this regard. And Allah is the one who grants accordance (tawfiq).

[Mawlana] Muhammad ‘Aaqil, head of teachers
[Mawlana] Muhammad Salman, deputy nazim[10]
[Mufti] Maqsud ‘Ali, mufti of the madrasah
[Mufti] ‘Abd al-Rahman, mufti of the madrasah

Stamped with the seal of the Dar al-Ifta of Mazahir al-‘Ulum Saharanpur

Islah Mafahim par Tahqiqi Nazr, (Lahore; Madrasah Khuddam Ahl al-Sunnah, 2006) p.435-442.

_____________________________

  1. Nur wa bashar – whether the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) is human or light; ‘ilm al-ghayb kulli – whether the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) has all knowledge of the unseen; mukhtar al-kul – whether the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) has complete right of disposition; hadhir wa nadhir – whether the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) is present and watching everything. []
  2. Mawlana Isma’il Badat Madani is a graduate of Mazahir al-‘Ulum, Saharanpur, and a khalifah of Shaykh al-Hadith Mawlana Muhammad Zakariyya Kandhalawi Madani. He is presently resident in Madinah al-Munawwarah. []
  3. The famous Barelwi scholar and debater, Muhammad ‘Umar Icharwi, wrote a book, Miqyas Nur, to prove that reality (haqiqah) of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was light (nur) while his outward was human (bashari). He writes on p.24, “This verse establishes that the reality (haqiqah) of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) was not human (bashari), rather his haqiqah was nuri …” He further writes on p.73, “It becomes evident from these hadiths that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) was a superior nur and the moon was a nur of a lesser degree. The superior nur split the lesser nur into pieces. This power of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) is contradictory [at odds] to haqiqah bashariyyah and thus proves that the haqiqah of the Messenger was not bashari but it was pure nur.” He writes on p.90, “Allah Most High described in this verse the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) as pure nur, which proves that he is in reality a nur and only has human attributes.” []
  4. Ahmad Rada Khan Barelwi writes, “It is without a doubt that the Almighty has given His Noble Beloved (Allah bless him and grant him peace) the complete knowledge of everything from the first till the last. From the east to the west, from the Throne till the earth, everything was shown to him. He was made witness to the Kingdom of the heavens and the earth. From the very first day till the last day all of the knowledge of what was and what shall be (ma kana wa ma yakun) has been shown to him. From all of the above, not even an iota is outside the knowledge of the Prophet. Great knowledge has been encompassed by the Noble Beloved (Allah bless him and grant him peace). It is not just of a summary type but what is small and big, every leaf that falls and every grain in the darkness of the earth are in their entirety known to him individually and in detail. Much praise to Allah. In fact, that which has been discussed is not, never, the complete knowledge of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace and send peace on his family and companions, all of them); but this is a small part of the Prophet’s knowledge …” (Anba al-Mustafa, p.486) []
  5. The hakim al-ummah of the Barelwis, Ahmad Yaar Khan Gujarati, writes, “In the world, the legal meaning of hadhir and nadhir is that a spiritually strong person sees the entire world in the way he sees the palm of his hand, and hears voices from both far and near, or travels the entire world in an instant and assists those with needs over thousands of miles.” (Ja’al-Haq, chapter: Hadhir wa Nadhir ki Bahth) []
  6. Amjad ‘Ali A’zimi, the deputy (khalifah) of Ahmad Rada Khan Barelwi, writes in Bahar-i-Shariah (p.1: 30-31), a book of fiqh for the general public, “Our Master, the Prophet (may Allah bless him and give him peace), is the absolute deputy of Allah Most High. He has been given control (tassaruf) over the entire universe. He may do as he desires, give to whomsoever he wishes, take from anyone whatever he desires. None in the universe can deny his rulings. The entire universe is under his governance and he is under the authority of none except Allah. He is the owner (malik) of all humans. Anyone who does not accept him to be his owner (malik) remains devoid of the sweetness of the Sunnah. All the earth is his property. Paradise is his estate. The angels of earth and the sky are under his authority. The keys to paradise and hell have been given to him in his noble hand. Sustenance, goodness and other types of blessings are distributed from his noble office. This world and the hereafter is a portion of his blessings. The rulings of Shariah have been delegated to his authority. He may make impermissible (haram) for anyone whatever he decides. Similarly, he may make permissible (halal) whatever he wishes and exempt whatever obligation (fard) he desires.” []
  7. Kanz al-‘Ummal, part 1, hadith number 1102. []
  8. Imam Rabbani Mawlana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi and Shaykh al-Islam Mawlana Husayn Ahmad Madani (may Allah mercy them both). (Translator) []
  9. This is in reference to the first generation of the ‘ulama of Deoband. (Translator) []
  10. Both Mawlana Muhammad ‘Aaqil and Mawlana Muhammad Salman are khalifahs and sons-in-law of Shaykh al-Hadith Mawlana Muhammad Zakariyya Kandhalawi. []

18 Comments

  • Assalaam o aaleykum!

    “The renowned contemporary Hadith scholar, Shaykh Muhammad ‘Awwamah, born in Aleppo, Syria and currently residing in the illuminated city of Madinah, was asked about scholars around the world whom he considered beacons of guidance. In reply, he mentioned some of those whom he was aware of and who came to mind at that time. Below is a translation of what he said about the scholars of the Indian Subcontinent.

    In India: From the scholars of the second university is the eminent Shaykh Muhammad ‘Aqil, son of the ‘Allamah, the great research scholar (al-muhaqqiq, al-mudaqqiq) Shaykh Muhammad Ayyub Saharanpuri, author of Tarajim al-Ahbar, which contains biographies of the narrators in Sharh Ma‘ani al-Athar.”

    Continue reading here:

    http://zakariyya.wordpress.com/2008/10/12/shaykh-muhammad-%e2%80%98awwamah-on-contemporary-scholars-of-the-indian-subcontinent/

  • Definitely we all the Muslims who adhere to the beliefs of Ahl al Sunnah Wa al Jama’ah (Deobandi) agree that on the backgrounds of faith and beliefs a union between Ahl al Sunnah and Ahl al Bid’ah is impossible. The unity of Muslims is based on the unity of Aqidah, which comes from Quran and Sunnah alone. There is no further guidence except the Quran and holy traditions of the Holy Messenger of Allah (SAW). The Ulama of Deoband who are bearers of the aqidah of Ahl al Sunnah are also the protectors of the faith. They never can unite with any kind of deviation, which leads Muslims towards transgrassion. Based on the invalid faith of the Barelwis (Ahl al Bid’ah), which have no support from the Quran and Sunnah, how their faith and beliefs could be endorssed by the protectors of the true faith? A unity with Bralwis means to endorse their deviated sect, their beliefs, which have misled millions of Muslims from the right path. The Messneger of Allah clearly mentioned that there will be 73 sects in my community and only one will share the Paradise with me. This sect will be the sect of the bearer of the true faith. This sect will be following the faith carried by the Sahabah. Therefore, as per the predictions of the Messenger of Allah himself all deviated sects including Barelwis must have to abondon their faith and should hold the beliefs according to the Quran and Sunnah. Otherwise this is the solid responsibility of the Ulama of Deoband to expose the deviated (Batil) beliefs of Barelwis, which is nothing but ignorence and deviation from the right path (Sirat e Mustaqim).

  • Salam,

    Isn’t the title a bit misleading? This isn’t an article that calls to deobandi-barewli unity as the title suggests, rather its two fatawa on innovation.

  • The house of Islam is burning down and the kuffar laugh at us and we worry about such differences? We are a pathetic mess as an ummah and inshaAllah with the Mahdi we will unite.

    I will pray with our Barelwi brothers just the same as I will pray with our Shia brothers and do this with the intention of unity inshaAllah.

    We need real solutions and I’m not sure if the elders of our community are willing to compromise for unity purposes.

  • @mj – I think the title is open to different interpretations.

    @unity – You are right that we are a pathetic mess as a community but at what cost would unity come? Do we compromise on our fundamental beliefs? Do we strike a deal by compromising with bid’ah (I’m sure you’ve heard of hadiths on bid’ah and that makes this a very serious offense)? Where do we draw the line? Why is that we should compromise by leaving the truth and endorsing the falsehood … and they don’t compromise by leaving the falsehood and accepting the truth? How come they are not being asked to leave the bid’ahs for the sake of unity? Certainly these innovated actions and beliefs are not a central part of belief!

  • We should press for unity amongst Muslims. The foreign powers are exploiting differences between the Muslim Ummah for their benefit. In one of the fatwas above, it is wrongly said not to use Faysala Haft Masla as an evidence.The book is written by the Shaykh-e-Tariqat of all leading scholars of Deoband, Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki and this book encourages moderation in religious issues and emphasizes unity. How can the point of view of a highly pious personality of Haji Imdadullah be ignored !!!

  • Ws,

    This is absolutely ridiculous. Its good to note that these “up holders and beacons of the sunnah” are constantly misquoting and misleading to propagate their own beliefs. This website is full of misquotations from the 3 other madhaib to perpetuate the staunch and rigid hanafi fiqh espoused by deoband. There are articles which suggest that the maliki madhab has certain dominant views on niqaab (which simply are not true), that the shafi madhab says certain things about the beard (again not true)- all to perpetuate this outward crazed and limb rich practice of religion. Lets focus on real issues please. Like the idea that our women are sitting at home watching bollywood films because they are banned from the masajid despite the Prophetic Counsel PBUH explicitly forbidding people to ban women from the masajid. O yeah, I am sorry, I forgot that we now live in the “time of fitnah”. The rulings of the Messenger pbuh no longer apply because we are in “the time of fitnah”, right? At least that is what our scholars from this sub continent beacon of scholarship seem to suggest to us. I am more comfortable following the foresight of our Messenger pbuh than the interpretations of some scholars with cultural agendas who insist that the sayings of the Prophet PBUH no longer hold wait in the time of fitnah

  • @Zed

    As-salamu ‘alaykum:

    “This is absolutely ridiculous.”

    The only thing ridiculous here is your comment (above), which is filled with sweeping generalizations, false statements and outright slander!

    “Its good to note that these “up holders and beacons of the sunnah” are constantly misquoting and misleading to propagate their own beliefs. This website is full of misquotations from the 3 other madhaib to perpetuate the staunch and rigid hanafi fiqh espoused by deoband.”

    Can you please mention the misquotations? You’ve made the claim and, now, for this conversation to go any further we will need to see those quotes. The onus is on us to provide answers with proof. If we are wrong, we will accept our fault.

    “There are articles which suggest that the maliki madhab has certain dominant views on niqaab (which simply are not true)”

    You are free to consult the Maliki ulama such as Ustadh Abdur Shakur Brooks and his teachers (not the ones in your home town) on the relied upon positions of their maddhhab. And the Deobandis did not issue those rulings on the niqab! They did, i.e., the imams of the Malikis. If anything, you have a problem with them and not just us.

    And by the way, would you care to inform us of what the Maliki position – in your opinion – is on the niqab?

    “… all to perpetuate this outward crazed and limb rich practice of religion.”

    Right. So, the Niqab and Beard are outward crazed and limb rich practices. SubhanAllah. I don’t think this even deserves an answer.

    “Lets focus on real issues please.”

    Like?

    And we’re not saying these are the only issues. In fact, browse through our site and see for yourself that we’ve made available materials on a whole host of topics, from politics to sports and entertainment in Islam.

    “Like the idea that our women are sitting at home watching bollywood films because they are banned from the masajid despite the Prophetic Counsel PBUH explicitly forbidding people to ban women from the masajid. O yeah, I am sorry, I forgot that we now live in the “time of fitnah”. The rulings of the Messenger pbuh no longer apply because we are in “the time of fitnah”, right? “

    I’m going to have husn al-dhann and excuse you due to your ignorance. But knowingly blurting out such statements won’t do you any good. These accusations would be applicable to the Sahabah and the major scholars of this Ummah. May Allah save us from soiling our tongues in such a way.

    “than the interpretations of some scholars with cultural agendas who insist that the sayings of the Prophet PBUH no longer hold wait in the time of fitnah”

    The positions of the Deobandi ulama are not new. They are the positions of the ulama of the past, many of whom were Arabs. This is all documented. You just need to do some research.

    Before making any further generalizations or accusations against our ‘Ulama, please show us where we have misquoted anyone and where we have differed from the ‘Ulama of the past, i.e., what are the issues the that the ‘Ulama of Deoband have given a fatwa on without there being a precedent for it in the Hanafi madhhab of the past?

    • aoa,
      you completely destroyed the argument.superb answer.and i see there were no proofs provided in response.

      • As-salaamu `alaykum,

        al-hamdu-lillah because where the truth is spoken falsehood always perishes..

        The irony of this is that the one so dysfunctional in deen to have made such stupid points in the first place THINKS the `ulamaa of deoband are extremists when in fact he himself is the extremist and as a result he perishes in his extremism!!

        Hadeeth saheeh:

        “Extremists shall perish, extremists shall perish, extremists shall perish!”

        And who indeed perished here?

        In my view, the `aalim who gracefully responded to this putrid vomit of such a sick heart has been very kind and merciful and excusing in his reply, as it is quite apparent that in his ignorance the misguided miscreant who spewed all of that … has condemned the sharee`ah as well as condemning such sahaabah (and one of the ummahaat al-mu’mineen) as `aa’ishah and `umar (who were the ones who originally made the fatwaa that women should not attend the masjid)..

  • Assalam o Alaikum
    I believe that if you look deeply in to brailwi culture,you will find Shirk more than Bidaah.One of them told me that durin Mearaj when Musa PBUH sent our Holy Prophet PBUH five times back to request Almighty ALLAH to decrease the number of prayers is the proof that dead can help. If you talk with them,you will find more shirk than Bidaah.Can we call them Mushrik,please guide me.
    thanks

    • @khelji,
      AssalamuAlaykum,
      We personally, can’t call anyone Kafir, mushrik, but one we can say that the acts he/she is doing/practicing is against Sunnah. Our scholars Deobandi, also never fired any fatwa blaming one for kufr. So, instead of calling them Mushrik, you can say that so and so practices are against sunnah, and we strongly oppose any act against sunnah. I hope you got what i wanted to tell. AllahHafiz.

  • Dear Zed,
    Do you remember the first woman who spoke out about women attending the masjid? Her name was ‘Aisha Siddiqa, our mother. And fitna has just gone on increasing day by day, not lessened. This is not something to take lightly when the Deobandi opinion has Akabir Sahaba standing by its side. WS.

  • Asalamu`alaykum

    What is the Deobandi opinion regarding this hadith:

    The Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, said: “My Lord came to me in the best form” – the narrator said: “I think he said: ‘in my sleep’” – “and asked me over what did the Higher Assembly (al-mala’ al-a‘lâ) vie; I said I did not know, so He put His hand between my shoulders, and I felt its coolness in my innermost, and knowledge of all things between the East and the West came to me.”

    Narrated by al-Tirmidhi with three chains: two from Ibn ‘Abbas – in the first of which he said “the knowledge of all things in the heaven and the earth” while he graded the second hasan gharîb – and one chain from Mu‘adh (hasan sahîh) which explicitly mentions that this took place in the Prophet’s (SAWS) sleep.

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