Author Mufti Muhammad Shafi'

Prophets, Angels and Companions

The Difference between Tasarruf and Karamah

The difference between tasarruf and karamah is that tasarruf comes about by the usage of natural means, like the imaginative or contemplative faculties, and it is from the commonly acquired skills. Acceptance from Allah Almighty and even being Muslim have no bearing on it, since many disbelievers like the Brahmans of India and the atheists of Europe called “Mesmerists” today perform it.
Yes, since the basis of this faculty is the collectiveness of the mind and the unity of thought, it often occurs to some of those engaged in the remembrance of Allah Almighty who shun the world and what is in it, for they are at a high degree of collectiveness of mind and unity of thought. Its performance has been reported from some of them on some occasions, although the gnostics from them would scorn this and consider it a deficiency of complete servitude. This is why tasarruf has not been reported from the Prophets (upon them peace) at all.

Deviant Beliefs

Dispelling Doubt about Knowledge of the Unseen

Know, firstly, that those who have become obsessed in this matter with figurative interpretation or denial, it is only the affirmation of knowledge of ghayb for the Chief of the Prophets and Messengers, the collector of the sciences of the earlier and later peoples, our master and our Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace), that drives them to this, due to their belief that its negation from him (Allah bless him and grant him peace) is a blemish within the sanctity of his prophethood and messengership, or a reduction in his rank. Hence, they got into [the dilemma] which they got into without determining the meaning of the ghayb that is exclusive to His (Exalted is He) essence, which is negated from him (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and the rest of creation; and they began to derive proof for their conclusion from all that is transmitted about his knowledge or his (Allah bless him and grant him peace) reports about the unknown, yet they do not know that what is established by these proofs is not negated from him (Allah bless him and grant him peace) in the Shari‘ah according to any of the Muslims, and what is negated from him is not established by these verses.


When should one stand up during the Iqamah?

When should the muqtadis stand up for salah in congregation? Should they stand before the iqamah begins, when the iqamah begins or when the words hayya ‘ala al-falah are reached? The answer to this question lies in the practice of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) and the Noble Companions (may Allah be pleased with them).
Sayyiduna Bilal (may Allah be pleased with him) would render the adhan for Zuhr after zawal (i.e., when the sun reaches its zenith or midway point). He would not say the iqamah until the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) emerged from his quarters. When he emerged and he saw him, the iqamah would begin. (Muslim)


Virtues and Laws Pertaining to Bismillah

Islam has come with an easy and practical Shari’ah. Its effort is limited but its reward is great. There are many amazing examples of a small action carrying great rewards. Its salah is not confined to a masjid, but can be performed in any house and on any piece of land. It does not instruct one to give up this world for the purpose of worship, but gives such panaceas, that convert worldly matters into din (religion) too. A person can be involved in worldly pursuits but still become and remain a dhakir shaghil (one who is constantly engaged in dhikr) and wasil bi ‘l-haqq (one who is linked to Allah Most High). The practical and verbal teachings of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) are such that they are a means of guidance for every action and movement. For every occasion and place he has taught us concise du’as (supplications) which do not become a hindrance and an obstacle in ones work, nor do they require great effort. By practicing on these small things a person becomes one who is permanently in the remembrance of Allah.

Rulings on Hadith

Regarding the Shadow of the Messenger

If it is established with an authentic [and reliable] chain of transmission that, as a miracle, the Blessed Messenger (Allah bless him and give him peace) did not have a shadow, no Muslim will hesitate in accepting this fact. However, there are no reports with a reliable chain of transmission on this issue. There is no mention of such a hadith regarding this issue in the well-known hadith compilations such as the Sihah Sittah, etc. However, there is a single narration mentioned by Imam Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti (may Allah have mercy on him) in his book Al-Khasa’is al-Kubra, in the chapter regarding the miracle in the Prophet’s excreta (Allah bless him and give him peace)… Hakim al-Tirmidhi narrates from ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Qays al-Za’farani from ‘Abd al-Malik ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn al-Walid from Zukran that no shadow could be seen for the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) in sunlight nor [could it be seen] in moonlight and his excreta did not leave behind any effect or remains. Imam al-Suyuti then comments: “Ibn Saba’ says ‘From his specialties (khasa’is) [and distinguishing characteristics] is that his shadow would not fall upon the earth and that he (Allah bless him and give him peace) was light (nur). When he would walk in sunlight or moonlight, no shadow would be visible.'” (Khasa’is; 1/71)


The Practice of Calling Adhan Over Graves

First of all, it is not established from any authentic hadith that Satan comes in the grave. But, if we do [hypothetically] accept that he does come in the grave, then his coming poses no possibility of harm (or threat), because the ability of misleading others is particular to this world [and not to the realm of barzakh and akhirah (hereafter)] as this world is a source of burden and tribulation. As is mentioned in a hadith: “The living cannot be guaranteed safety from fitnah (trials and tribulations) …” When a person passes away, he cannot be now led astray if he was on guidance and cannot be guided if he was astray. Therefore, prescribing the adhan at this juncture is basing an unsound practice on an unsound [and invalid] proof.